Organised by: David Breeze, Erik Graafstal and Rebecca H. Jones

This session will explore the relationships between various emperors and activities on frontiers during their reigns. How do the literary sources relate to the archaeological evidence? How active were emperors, especially those who did not move from Rome? How much did they leave decision making to their governors? How can we recognise the activities of particular emperors on frontiers? The session aims to reach behind the conventional interpretations of the actions of emperors, especially the bias of the ancient sources, and thereby also examine the interplay between these sources and the archaeological evidence.

Gaius and Claudius, 40-43: the slow build-up for Britain, Erik Graafstal

Domitian on the Danube: Dealing Death to the Dacians?, Christoph Rummel

Antoninus Pius: A peaceful reign?, David Breeze

Marcus Aurelius: from Philosophy to Reality, Sonja Jilek

Septimius Severus – Expeditio felicissima Britannica, Rebecca H. Jones

Caracalla beyond the Limes Raetiae – Planned campaign, immediate reaction or pure fiction?, C. Sebastian Sommer